Editorial Note:

The ADL vocabulary was updated in August, 2015 a vocabulary scheme for IRI persistence. When using the original ADL verbs for xAPI statements, developers and CoPs should continue to use original identifier at http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/verbname. Newly minted ADL controlled vocabulary terms will use a persistent IRI, https://w3id.org/xapi so that IRIs can be better designed and maintained. By adopting this approach, the target URL for semantic dereferencing can be more easily managed and updated. This vocabulary is available as RDFa and can also be retrieved as machine-readable JSON-LD by using a GET header request from the Vocabulary IRI by using a HTTP header request (e.g., curl --header "Accept: application/ld+json" -L https://w3id.org/xapi/adl).

Published by: xAPI Vocabulary Working Group
Date Created: 2015-04-27
Last Modified: 2015-10-02
Label Description ID (IRI) Closely Related Term Vocabulary
abandoned Indicates the activity provider has determined that the session was abnormally terminated either by an actor or due to a system failure. https://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/abandoned http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202080923-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
answered Indicates the actor replied to a question, where the object is generally an activity representing the question. The text of the answer will often be included in the response inside result. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200637941-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
asked Indicates an inquiry by an actor with the expectation of a response or answer to a question. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/asked http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200786389-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
attempted Indicates the actor made an effort to access the object. An attempt statement without additional activities could be considered incomplete in some cases. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attempted http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202535833-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
attended Indicates the actor was present at a virtual or physical event or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attended http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202618797-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
commented Indicates the actor provided digital or written annotations on or about an object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/commented http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/201060446-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
completed Indicates the actor finished or concluded the activity normally. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/completed http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200485097-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
exited Indicates the actor intentionally departed from the activity or object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/exited http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202019450-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
experienced Indicates the actor only encountered the object, and is applicable in situations where a specific achievement or completion is not required. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/experienced http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202114674-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
failed Indicates the actor did not successfully pass an activity to a level of predetermined satisfaction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/failed http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202534046-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
imported Indicates the actor introduced an object into a physical or virtual location. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/imported http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202237504-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
initialized Indicates the activity provider has determined that the actor successfully started an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/initialized http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200702662-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
interacted Indicates the actor engaged with a physical or virtual object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/interacted http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202382049-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
launched Indicates the actor attempted to start an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/launched http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/201517828-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
logged-in Indicates the actor gained access to a system or service by identifying and authenticating with the credentials provided by the actor. https://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/logged-in http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202253955-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
logged-out Indicates the actor either lost or discontinued access to a system or service. https://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/logged-out http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202254101-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
mastered Indicates the highest level of comprehension or competence the actor performed in an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/mastered http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200599029-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
passed Indicates the actor successfully passed an activity to a level of predetermined satisfaction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/passed http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202530710-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
preferred Indicates the selected choices, favored options or settings of an actor in relation to an object or activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/preferred http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200681308-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
progressed Indicates a value of how much of an actor has advanced or moved through an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/progressed http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/201996535-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
registered Indicates the actor is officially enrolled or inducted in an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/registered http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202477113-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
responded Indicates an actor reacted or replied to an object. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/responded http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200719282-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
resumed Indicates the application has determined that the actor continued or reopened a suspended attempt on an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/resumed http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200350937-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
satisfied Indicates that the authority or activity provider determined the actor has fulfilled the criteria of the object or activity. https://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/satisfied http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202677669-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
scored Indicates a numerical value related to an actor's performance on an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/scored http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/105745098-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
shared Indicates the actor's intent to openly provide access to an object of common interest to other actors or groups. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/shared http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202300511-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
suspended Indicates the status of a temporarily halted activity when an actor's intent is returning to the or object activity at a later time. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/suspended http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200543748-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
terminated Indicates that the actor successfully ended an activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/terminated http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/200353480-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
voided A special reserved verb used by a LRS or application to mark a statement as invalid. See the xAPI specification for details on Voided statements. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/voided http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202483482-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
waived Indicates that the learning activity requirements were met by means other than completing the activity. A waived statement is used to indicate that the activity may be skipped by the actor. https://w3id.org/xapi/adl/verbs/waived http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/202539728-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
Acitivity Type Description ID (IRI) Closely Related Term Vocabulary
assessment An assessment is an activity type that determines a learner’s mastery of a particular subject area. An assessment typically has one or more questions. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/assessment http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/107211681-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
attempt An attempt is a discrete set of learner experiences in an activity. This activity gives systems the ability to uniquely identify experiences when they may have happened in different interactions with the same activity. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/attempt http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/100787849-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
course A course represents an entire “content package” worth of material. The largest level of granularity. Unless flat, a course consists of multiple modules. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/course http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/100886144-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
file A file is similar to a link, only the resource is more likely to be used at a) a different time, b) can be used offline, and/or c) could be used with a different system. Only the expectation changes. Files are not considered learning content or SCOs. If a file is intended for this purpose, it should be re-categorized. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/file http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/106521201-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
interaction An interaction is typically a part of a larger activity (such as a assessment, game, or simulation) and refers to a control to which a learner provides input. An interaction can be either an asset or function independently. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/interaction http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/100039759-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
lesson A lesson is learning content that may or may not take on the form of a SCO (formal, tracked learning). A lesson may stand-alone or may be part of a larger course. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/lesson http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/100891150-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
A link is simply a means of expressing a link to another resource within, or external to, an activity. A link is not synonymous with launching another resource and should be considered external to the current resource. Links are not learning content, nor SCOs. If a link is intended for this purpose, it should be re-categorized. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/link http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/106598647-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
media Media refers to text, audio, or video used to convey information. Media can be consumed (tracked: completed), but doesn’t have an interactive component that may result in a score, success, or failure. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/media http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/108479331-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
meeting A meeting is a gathering of multiple people for a common cause or interest. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/meeting http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/101233454-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
module A module represents any “content aggregation” at least one level below the course level. Modules of modules can exist for layering purposes. Modules are not content. Modules are one level up from all content. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/module http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/103784133-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
objective An objective determines whether competency has been achieved in a desired area. Objectives typically are associated with questions and assessments. Objectives are not learning content and cannot be SCOs. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/objective http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/105990115-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
performance A performance is an attempted task or series of tasks within a particular context. Tasks would likely take on the form of interactions, or the performance could be self-contained content. It emphasizes students or learners being able to do, or perform, specific skills as a result of the instruction. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/performance http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/100098324-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
profile A profile is an activity that defines a set of rules and recommendations for generating xAPI statements for a particular domain. The inclusion of a profile activity in a statement identifies that statement as following the rules outlined in the profile. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/profile http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/201517828-v https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
question A question is typically part of an assessment and requires a response from the learner, a response that is then evaluated for correctness. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/question http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/107211342-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl
simulation A simulation is an attempted task or series of tasks in an artificial context that mimics reality. Tasks would likely take on the form of interactions, or the simulation could be self-contained content. http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/simulation http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/wn31/100900747-n https://w3id.org/xapi/adl